Basic Medical Sciences

Toxicity Study Of Beetroot (Beta Vulgaris) Extract In Normal Sprague Dawley Rats

The safety of beetroot as a health promoting and disease preventing functional food was evaluated. Beetroot was extracted with distilled water, thereafter different doses of 10-1000 mg/kg and 1600-5000 mg/kg body weight were administered orally as a single dose (acute toxicity). Doses of 200-3000 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days were administered orally (subchronic toxicity) as against distilled water in the control group. The LD50 was greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were euthanized and examined for biochemical and haematological changes.

Total Phenolics, Vitamin C and Free Radical Scavenging Capacities of Some Nigerian Fruits

Aqueous extracts of selected fruits were assessed to ascertain if, there is a correlation between the natural antioxidants in the fruits and their antioxidant capacities using four in-vitro assay methods. Total phenol, flavonoids, vitamin C, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH], 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) [ABTS], radical scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant property [FRAP], and iron II chelating ability were determined in the fruit extracts.

Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Nigerian Beverages

The aqueous extract of Nigerian beverages namely: fortified cocoa powder (Samples; FCA, FCB, FCC, FCD). Pure cocoa powder (PCA, PCB), coffee (C), ginger (G) and Tea samples (Green, TA, TB) were assayed for total phenols, flavonoids, Vitamin C, and radical scavenging abilities using four different in vitro antioxidant assay methods. Coffee contains the highest amount of total phenols (135.71±0.92mg/g) and Vitamin C. (62.90±2.97mg/g). The highest amounts of flavonoids were found in all the tea samples (10.0±0.00mg/g).

The Saponin Content and Sapogenol Composition in Raw, Processed and Germinated Lima Beans (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jackbeans (Canavalia ensiformis)

The total saponin content of raw, processed and germinated lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jackbeans (Canavalia ensiformis) has been determined (as sapogenol B). Qualitative determination of the native sapogenol in the raw bean extracts was determined by thin layer chromatography. Red and White lima beans and jackbeans were found to contain 2610.1, 2861.2 and 1007.10mg/kg dry weight respectively of soya saponin | using capillary gas chromatography. The effects of different processing methods on the total saponin content were investigated.

The Effects of Various Traditional Processing Methods on the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load of Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata)

The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of processed brown cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) were determined. The whole seeds were dehulled, ground into a paste and steamed (“Moin-moin”) or fried (“Akara” FB). Proximate analyses were done to determine the quantity containing 50g available carbohydrate. Forty healthy volunteers were used for this study. The test groups consumed the processed cowpea while 50g glucose was administered to the control group. The blood glucose response at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min was assessed for each individual of the different groups.

The Effect of Heat Treated Lima Beans (Phaseolus lunatus) on Plasma Lipids in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

The effects of legume consumption on a dietary induced model of hypercholesterol in rats have been determined. Grower’s mash from Bendel Feed and Flour Mill (BFFM) Ewu, Nigeria, was fed to two groups of rats: the test and control groups for 30 days. To induce hypercholesterolemia in the test group, 25% Coconut oil and 1% cholesterol was included in the diet of the test group. The hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into two subgroups. The first group was fed only with heat Lima beans and the second group with the grower’s mash mixed with 0.1% Saponin. This was done for another 30 days.

The effect of daily consumption of yoghurt on the serum lipids, CD4 count, total and differential white blood cells in apparently healthy subjects.

The effect of daily consumption of yoghurt on serum lipids, CD4 count, total and differential white blood cells were evaluated in 30 healthy volunteers (22.65 ± 0.64years). The volunteers served as their own control (Phase I). Thereafter, they were fed 100g/day of yoghurt for two weeks (Phase II). A 200g/day quantity was given for another two weeks (Phase III), and a washout (Phase IV), in which yoghurt was not fed for two weeks. Blood samples were collected after each phase (I, II, III, and IV) and analyzed for serum lipids, CD4 count, total and differential white blood cells (WBC).

The Effect of a Single Cigarette Puff on Air Flow in The Lungs

Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) was measured in 160 apparently healthy males, 15 – 50 years of age, consisting of 60 non-smokers (control) and 100 who volunteered to smoke (experimental subjects). Out of the 100 subjects, 50 who were also non-smokers smoked a cigarette through a single suck (puff). Another 50 who previously smoked also took a single puff. Results indicate that PEFR for the control group was 558 ± 10L/min in the 30 younger subjects (15-30yrs) and 516 ± 11 L/min in the 30 older subjects (31-50yrs) and the difference was significant (P<0.05).

The Assessment of Plasma Ascorbic Acid, Alpha Tocopherol and Albumin Creatinine Ratio in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

Background: Albumin: creatinine ratio is used to assess chronic renal damage while the status of Antioxidant vitamins could be compromised in chronic renal failure patients.
Objective: To assess the levels of Antioxidant vitamins and Albumin creatinine ratio, in patients with chronic renal failure. (CRF)

Selenium Contents of Some Commonly Consumed Nigerian Vegetables and Physiological Implications

For the present work, ten (10) commonly consumed Nigerian vegetables were purchased from the open market in Benin City. The vegetables include: waterleaf, ewedu leaf, bitter leaf, cassava leaf, pumpkin leaf, taro cocoyam leaf, tannin cocoyam leaf, green pepper leaf. Okra leaf and tomato leaf and were analyzed for selenium. The Selenium levels of the various leaves were determined by fluorometric method. The results indicate that the Selenium concentrations of each of the vegetable leaves were within the permissible level for human nutrition.